What is the significance of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples?

Great article explores this topic.



  1. S. Klein, D. Nurjadi, S. Horner, K. Heeg, S. Zimmermann, and I. Burckhardt, "Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation", European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, pp. 1305-1311, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-3250-6